It’s unlikely that you’ll recover the cost of replacement windows with the resulting energy savings unless your current windows are extremely inefficient. But there are other good reasons to replace old windows: if they are ugly or deteriorated; if they are so drafty that they make living spaces uncomfortable; if they are hard to wash; or if you want to minimize your home’s impact on the environment. You might also want a new window where there was none before.
The windows you buy will determine the look, the amount of light you get, the comfort and energy savings you achieve, and how long they will last.
Salespersons will be able to give you good data on energy savings, but you will want to check their claims using the tools we describe in this article. On questions of durability, you won’t be able to get verifiable data, but you can learn quite a bit about window construction by talking to different salespersons and reading manufacturer literature. Also, compare warranties.
There are, unfortunately, a lot of unhappy customers of window installers. As our Ratings Tables reveal, some firms were rated "inferior" by 25 percent or more of their surveyed customers. But there are also some very high-rated firms.
Price differences are big. For one carefully specified replacement job, for example, we found a firm-to-firm price range from $1,750 to $4,750.
How about some new windows? Windows that don't require a magic touch to
open and close. Windows that are easy to clean. Windows that keep cold
air outdoors, where it belongs. Maybe you've even been thinking a big bay
window would look terrific in the living room.
New windows can make sense on many levels—to save energy, cut drafts, improve
appearance, boost resale value, and reduce maintenance. And while it lasts,
the $1,500 federal tax credit you can get for high-efficiency replacements
makes a replacement project even more enticing.
You may get a wide range of claims from sellers of windows as to how much
new windows will cut from your energy bills. You need to be aware upfront
that even if you have old, drafty windows, new ones likely won't "pay for
themselves" from resulting energy savings.
But you still may value the energy-efficiency gains from new windows. Replacing
drafty windows that allow a chill in rooms on cold winter nights can enable
you to keep a more constant, comfortable temperature and a more comfortable
humidity level in your rooms. And many consumers are looking to replace
old windows with new, energy-efficient models simply because they want
to minimize the environmental impact of their homes.
In addition, you might want to get rid of old windows that have deteriorated
to the point that they have become unsightly or difficult to open and close.
And you might be tired of hauling, and teetering on, ladders to clean the
outside of windows; new double-hung windows are easy to clean, inside and
out by simply tilting each window in, or removing it so you can wash it
from the inside.
The benefits for homeowners have created opportunities for businesses,
some of which have taken advantage with high-pressure sales tactics, exaggerated
and confusing energy claims, and substandard installations.
This article will help you explore your window choices and will help you
find a high-quality, reliable window installer.
A good way to learn about your window options is to visit installers' showrooms.
Let salespersons describe window features and describe the different installation
techniques. Go to more than one showroom and get explanations from more
than one salesperson. Pick up copies of manufacturers' catalogs to look
through when you get home. But don't sign up to buy anything on these exploration
If you are adding or expanding windows or doing new construction, you will
probably benefit from creative ideas you can find in magazines and books
and on the Web.
There are many features to consider when selecting windows and a firm to
install them. You will have more to think about, of course, if you are
adding windows or doing new construction than if you are simply replacing
You'll want to buy windows that fit the architecture of your house and
your neighborhood. If you are in a historic district or if your home is
part of a homeowners association, be sure to find out what is allowed.
Preservation officials or homeowners association rules might not allow
vinyl windows, for instance, or might require that muntins (grids) in windows
be made in a specified way. Ignore these rules at the peril of having to
tear out what you have installed.
Assuming you aren't constrained by neighborhood requirements, you'll have
to decide among various types of windows and various construction materials.
If it is new construction or major remodeling, you have a choice of window
styles. The most common styles are—
- Double- and single-hung. Double- and single-hung units look the same, but
on single-hungs only the bottom sash moves. These windows can be cracked
for ventilation and locked in that position with window pins for security.
Tilt-in models make it easy to clean both sides. The marginal downside
is that only half the window area can be open at any time, while other
styles open fully for greater ventilation.
- Casement. These outward-swinging windows open fully for ventilation. And
the view isn't broken midway by the frames of two sashes. The weak link
is often the cranking hardware, particularly on a large unit.
- Awning and hopper. Awning-style windows swing out at the bottom and hoppers
swing in at the top. Both of these types of rectangular units (which look
like casements turned on their sides) are often inset at the top of foundation
walls to provide light and ventilation in basements. Click here to see a figure showing different
types of windows.
All styles are available in different materials, including wood, vinyl,
fiberglass, and to a lesser extent these days, aluminum. Your choice may
be based on appearance, cost, energy efficiency, maintenance, or a combination
of factors. But the most significant differences in quality among windows
are in how well they are constructed, not materials. A cheaply made wood
frame won't hold up as well as a top-quality vinyl or fiberglass frame,
and vice versa. Aluminum is not a popular option anymore because it is
a poor insulator, requiring disconnects, called thermal breaks, between
the inside and outside frame surfaces, and still may foster condensation
in cold climates—even when the new double glazing prevents it on the glass.
Although there is a very wide price range for each type, on average, vinyl
is the least expensive, wood is mid-range, exterior-clad wood is more expensive,
and fiberglass tops the list. A quick rundown of other pros and cons—
- Vinyl—The first generations of vinyl windows had problems with expansion
and contraction during temperature swings. Modern formulations have greatly
reduced that problem, though most manufacturers stick to light colors and
no longer offer dark brown frames because they absorb too much heat from
the sun's rays. Frames with welded corners are the sturdiest and most energy
- Wood—This traditional choice is a good natural insulator that can be milled
to provide classic architectural detailing—even in styles that meet restrictions
of historic districts or neighborhood associations. Many come factory primed,
ready for a finish coat in any color you like. That versatility is also
the main drawback: scraping and repainting every few years. Having vinyl
cladding on all exterior parts of wood windows increases the price and
may limit your ability to change color schemes over time, but can eliminate
the need for regular repainting.
- Fiberglass—This grainy synthetic is considered the most durable and the
strongest type, making it a good choice for large panes of glass and assemblies
of several windows. It can be extruded into slimmer profiles than vinyl,
making it a good choice for frame-plus-sash replacements. It can be painted
to suit and is available with wood veneer facings on the interior side.
In addition to choice of the material used to make windows, you'll need
to decide on other visible details. You will find windows with thicker
or thinner frames, with more or less substantial muntins, and with varying
types of hardware.
If you are replacing old windows, you need to consider what technique will
be used to install the new ones. There are three basic options:—
- Sash pack—If the frames and trim are in good shape and your reason for
replacing the windows is to get more energy-efficient window glass, consider
a sash pack. This is the least expensive option. In a typical installation,
old sash and tracks are removed, and jamb liners are installed against
the sides of the window frame. They seal and secure the new sash.
Major manufacturers may carry over 100 stock sizes, fabricate custom sizes,
and offer many colors, cladding, tilt-in hardware, divided-light grills,
and other features. Some companies market sash pack installation as a do-it-yourself
job. Manufacturer Jeld-Wen, for example, says replacement takes only about
20 minutes per window, and has a how-to video on its website (www.jeld-wen.com)
showing the process.
- Frame and sash—This common, more expensive replacement option consists
of a fully framed sash unit that slips into the existing window frame after
the old sashes and tracks are removed. In this case, again, the existing
frame and trim are left in place, and must be sound; framed replacements
can't compensate for major leak damage.
The key to this option is the amount of space between the old and new frames.
A good match will make a close fit, with no two-by-fours added to pack
out and significantly downsize the opening. Glass area may be reduced by
an inch or so, but not by several inches. Small gaps between the old and
new frames are fine; they can be insulated and existing trim built up with
narrow strips that blend into the overall facade. Installers should tuck
in loose-fill insulation or spray in low-expanding foam. (Standard foam
has enough pressure to bow the jambs.) On the other hand, if the fit leaves
large gaps, they typically require wide boards or aluminum panels to bridge
the openings and the result looks out of scale and doesn't fit in with
- Full window—This start-from-scratch option is the most expensive approach.
The old unit is pulled out, any damaged framing is repaired or replaced,
and then a new window is installed the way it would be for new construction.
This is the only option if the framing needs to be significantly altered.
It also avoids the reduction in glass area that results from the frame-and-sash
If your old windows are stock sizes (most are), there should be no need
to spend extra for custom construction. Window manufacturers' catalogs
often list at least 75 stock sizes just for double-hungs. For the rough
opening (the distance between framing members that allows for shimming
space), typical widths start at 24 inches and increase at four-inch intervals
up to 48 inches. Typical heights start at 36 inches and range up to 72
By choosing the right windows, you can conserve energy. That saves you
money, saves world resources, and reduces your contribution to pollution.
In addition, keeping heat from escaping your home will make your home more
comfortable. You will avoid cold areas around windows. You will also be
able to maintain a higher and more comfortable humidity level in your home
during winter months than can be maintained if cold dry air is infiltrating
your home and window surfaces are so cold that they collect condensation.
Modern windows are constructed to keep down your home's wintertime heat
loss and enhance its wintertime heat gain from the sun and to keep down
its summertime heat gain.
Heat transfers in three ways:
- Conduction, which is the movement of heat through solid material, like
glass or aluminum, the way heat reaches your hand through a drinking glass
if you pour hot tea into the glass.
- Convection/air infiltration, which is the movement of heated air or other
gas (or liquid), the way hot air rises out of the oven when you open the
- Radiation, which is movement of heat without conduction or convection,
the way warmth reaches your face as you sit by a sunny window even on a
Modern windows are typically constructed using two or three panes of glass,
with air or an inert gas like argon or krypton filling the space between
panes. The air or gas is an insulator, more resistant to the passage of
heat than solid glass. In many windows, one or more panes of glass are
glazed with a thin, transparent film of metal that reduces the pane's ability
to radiate heat. This is referred to as a low-E coating. In high-quality
windows, the frame itself is constructed of materials that are poor heat
conductors. Consideration is also given to the spacer material that separates
the panes of glass around the edges. Aluminum is a common spacer material
but is highly conductive, transferring heat from pane to pane; rigid foams
and other materials that are less conductive are used for spacers in some
windows instead of aluminum.
To assess the energy conservation performance of windows, several factors
The U-factor is a measure of the ease with which heat passes through the
window. This factor is sometimes calculated for the glass area only. That
is not very useful. You should get information on the U-factor for the
entire window assembly.
You want a window to have a low U-factor. A single pane of glass in an
aluminum frame might have a U-factor of about 1.3. Some high-tech windows
have U-factors as low as 0.1.
There are various ways heat might pass out of your home through the material
of a closed window when the outside temperature is cold. All contribute
to the U-factor. For example, with a double-pane window, heat might be
absorbed and conducted through the inner glass, absorbed by the gas that
fills the space between the panes, circulated to the outer pane by movement
of the gas, absorbed and conducted through the outer pane, and absorbed
and carried away by the air that moves along the outside of the window.
Simultaneously, heat might be absorbed by the glass and radiated to the
outside. Heat might also be absorbed by the inner glass pane, then conducted
to the other pane by the spacing material that separates the two panes
around the edges, and then radiated to the outside by the outer pane. In
addition, heat might be absorbed by the window frame and conducted directly
through it to the outside where it radiates away or is absorbed by the
outside air and moved away by convection. The U-factor measures the ease
with which all of these and other heat-transfer processes occur.
The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is a measure of the fraction of
the sun's radiation that is admitted through a window. It takes into account
both radiation that is directly transmitted and radiation that is absorbed
by the glass or frame and then re-radiated inward. A high SHGC number is
good to have in cold weather in windows that have a lot of direct sun exposure.
The heat a home takes in through a south-facing window from the sun's radiation
may be so great that it more than offsets heat loss through the window—making
the window better than a well-insulated wall from an energy conservation
standpoint. On the other hand, a high SHGC number in windows that have
a lot of direct sun exposure is bad in hot weather; the heat from the sun's
radiation raises indoor temperatures and causes air-conditioning systems
to work harder. The ideal solution is to have a high SHGC on south-facing
windows, which get direct exposure to the sun when the sun is low in the
sky in the winter, then protect these windows in the summer with a roof
overhang that obstructs sunlight when the sun is high in the sky or with
fully leafed-out deciduous trees.
In general, as U-factor goes down (because more effective low-E coatings
are added to the glass) the SHGC measurement goes down also, so for a south-facing
window, you may want to give up some ability to prevent heat loss in order
to get a window with high solar heat gain potential. A window with a single
clear pane of glass, with no special low-E coating, might have an SHGC
rating of about 0.70; a double-glazed window with low-E coating on both
panes of glass might have an SHGC of about 0.35, meaning it transmits about
half as much solar heat as the single clear pane transmits.
Air leakage, which is reported in cubic feet per minute per square foot
of window (cfm/sq ft), is a measure of the movement of air (convection)
between the inside and outside of a building through cracks in and around
the window frame. Look for windows that have an air-leakage rating of 0.3
or less. Click here to see a figure explaining U-factor, SHGC, and air leakage.
The performance of windows on the U-factor and SHGC measures should be
reported on a label developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council
(NFRC). A sample label is shown here. Don't buy a window that doesn't have such a label. Window manufacturers
aren't required to test their windows for, or display on the label, scores
on Air Leakage. Testing and reporting on this measure is voluntary.
There are computer programs that will help you estimate the energy cost
consequences of different ratings on these performance measures. Some stores
will have one of these programs to help you estimate the differences in
energy costs that will result from selecting windows with different ratings—and
also from adding new windows. You can also download for free a program
called RESFEN to use yourself by visiting a website of the Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory at http://windows.lbl.gov.
This figure illustrates the annual energy-savings payback you might expect from installing better windows. The savings from getting more energy-efficient windows can't be expected to offset the full cost of the windows at today's energy prices unless your current windows are extremely inefficient. Some features will contribute more energy savings than others. The biggest savings result from going from single- to double-pane glass.
To decide whether you want to invest in new windows, you will want to consider annual energy savings and various other factors. You will want to take at least a rough stab at estimating—
- How much you'll save on energy bills each year;
- How much value you put on the pleasure you will get from the increased
comfort and better appearance the windows will provide, including how much
money it is worth to you to reduce your home's carbon footprint by installing
more efficient windows, regardless of actual savings on your utility bill;
- How much the window improvements are likely to add to the resale value
of your house;
- How many years you expect to keep your house;
- How much price inflation might occur in future years; and
- How much you might make (after taxes) on your money if you invest it in
a secure investment (like a long-term bank CD) rather than in the windows.
These calculations will help you to calculate a rough value for the windows.
You can then compare that rough value to the costs you are quoted by window
To help you do these calculations, we have built a simple calculator you
can use at www.checkbook.org/valueofwindows. Figure 5 shows the results
of such a calculation for an illustrative homeowner.
As you think about selecting windows with additional energy-saving elements,
you will want to consider not only the extra costs of the windows but also
other differences. For example, the extra energy savings you get from triple
glass compared to double glass might require you to accept lower light
transmittance, greater visual distortion, heavier and harder-to-move sashes,
greater risk of breakdown of seals and resulting condensation between the
panes (since there are two sets of seals rather than one), and less attractive
grids (since grids placed between panes of glass generally must fit into
a smaller space in the triple-glazed windows).
For more information on window-related energy savings and many other aspects
of window purchases, you might check the website of the Efficient Windows
Collaborative (www.efficient-windows.org) and you might consult an
excellent book, Residential Windows: A Guide to New Technologies and Energy
Performance by Dariush Arasteh, John Carmody, Lisa Heschong, and Stephen
You probably wouldn't have much interest in windows if you couldn't see
through them and if they didn't bring light into your home. But not all
windows are equal in this regard. "Visible transmittance" is a measure
of the amount of visible light that passes through a window. It is affected
by the type of glazing material (glass or plastic) the window is made of,
the number of layers of panes, and any coatings applied to the panes. Visible
transmittance ranges from more than 90 percent for clear glass to less
than 10 percent for windows with highly reflective coatings on tinted glass.
NFRC labels report windows' visible transmittance (VT) ratings. You may
have to give up a portion of the visible light that would come through
a window in order to get a desired level of energy efficiency. This means
that what you see outdoors will not be as bright as it otherwise would
be. The diminished brightness might not bother you—might even please you—on
sunny days, but might be undesirable at night.
Depending on construction, windows might last for decades or might rot
and fail within a few years. The guarantees of the better-sealed window
units run for 20 years or more and don't make a pro-rated reduction in
the covered value as time passes.
You will have to judge for yourself the claims salespersons make about
durability. There are no independent testing data on future durability
of currently manufactured windows. By talking to various installers, you
can get opinions on durability from firms that sell multiple brands, but
this will give you a rough gauge at most.
Major causes of window failure are weak corner joints in vinyl and wood-frame
windows and moisture (especially from condensation in wood windows). You
can ask for information relating to these hazards. In general, vinyl sashes
that are welded rather than screwed together are stronger. Look for drainage
holes and spaces for air circulation to avoid moisture accumulation in
wood window frames and sashes.
With vinyl windows, there is no required maintenance. Similarly, aluminum-covered
areas of wooden windows require no maintenance. Exposed wood surfaces require
painting, but the better manufacturers apply thorough undercoating in the
Just as you'll want to be careful to select the right windows for your
home, you'll also want to be careful selecting an installer. We've received
a disturbing number of complaints from consumers regarding window installation
work. Even more alarming is the fact that a large percentage of the complaints
were the result of incredibly sloppy work (see below). Comments such as
the following were all too common—
- "Windows ordered were several inches too small for the openings, and to
cover it up they stuffed insulation in the gaps and covered with vinyl
siding rather than re-order the correct size windows. Extremely sloppy
job caulking inside and outside of windows. Crew had to return after first
substantial rain storm to re-caulk outside areas that were leaking rainwater
into the house."
- "Extremely poor response to installation problems. Made promises to remedy
problems, but failed to deliver. Took eight months to resolve a problem
identified on day of installation."
- "Windows not installed correctly first time. Any request for adjustment
required two visits: one to check that an adjustment was necessary and
then another at another time to do the necessary work. Installation was
sloppy and installer broke one of the windows."
- "Windows were not shimmed properly when installed. It took MONTHS and several
visits by the window manufacturer and the installer to get the problem
The ratings of local window installers on our Ratings Tables should
help you avoid these types of problems. We surveyed area CHECKBOOK and
Consumer Reports subscribers for their ratings of window installation outfits
they had used. our Ratings Tables show the results of our survey for
the firms that received 10 or more ratings. (For more information on our
customer survey and other research methods, click here.)
On our Ratings Tables, for firms that were evaluated in our last full,
published article, we also show counts of complaints we gathered from the
Better Business Bureau (BBB) for a recent three-year period, and the number
of complaints on file with the Consumer Protection Division of the Office
of the Attorney General for a recent two-year period.
You can check current BBB complaint information on any firm by contacting
the BBB at 312-832-0500 or by visiting www.chicago.bbb.org. For firms
listed on our Ratings Tables, in the details under the firm's listing,
click a link to the local BBB to go directly to the BBB's most up-to-date
report on any complaints about the firm.
Cost can vary substantially depending on which windows and which installer
On Table 1, you can see the price variation we found across installation
firms when we gave them exactly the same job specifications and let them
decide which make of windows to use. You can see that the highest priced
firm's quote was often twice as high as the lowest quote.
You can't get the same makes of windows from all firms, but even among
firms offering the same make, firm-to-firm differences of $50 to $100 per
window are common.
our Ratings Tables show how surveyed firms compared on price when our
shoppers got quotes for specified jobs. Our shoppers called the firms that
were evaluated in our last full, published article and, without revealing
an affiliation with CHECKBOOK, requested prices for three different jobs.
The price index scores shown on our Ratings Tables (further described
here) show how each firm's prices compared to the average price for all firms that quoted on the same jobs. We adjusted the price index scores so that the average for all the firms is $100. If a firm's score is $110, for example, this means that the firm's prices were, on average, 10 percent higher than the average prices we found for the same jobs.
To get a good price for the installation of windows that will meet your needs, we recommend the following steps—
- Have several installers come to your home, measure your windows, recommend
a replacement method, recommend a make and model of window, explain the
reasons for their recommendations, and give you prices.
- Discuss these recommendations and ask about lower priced alternatives.
If substantially lower prices would be available for less energy-efficient
windows, ask the firms to estimate the actual energy savings the higher
cost windows will yield. If you are not confident of the scientific basis
for these estimates, consider downloading the computer program mentioned
above from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and ask for the National
Fenestration Rating Council rating information for the recommended windows
so you can do your own calculations.
- Based on the information collected, decide on your final specifications.
Call the firms that have given you estimates and other firms to get their
prices for these final specifications. Get a final quote from each firm
- If you are not confident that the quality of the windows themselves is
comparable from firm to firm when the firms simply quote on specifications,
you can have the firms quote on a specific make and model; you are likely
to find some makes and models that several of the firms can quote on.
- If you are doing remodeling and will be putting windows into roughed-in
openings, you might consider having the contractor that is doing the other
construction work purchase and install your windows, rather than dealing
with a specialized window installation firm. Window installation firms
are primarily geared to install replacement frames rather than to do new
If the new windows you're installing meet energy-efficiency guidelines,
you can also trim costs by seeking tax credits and other incentives. For
2010, you can receive a federal tax credit equal to 30 percent of the product
cost (installation costs cannot be included in the credit calculation)
when you buy new windows that have U-factors of 0.30 or less and SHGC of
0.30 or less. This credit applies not only to new windows, but also to
new energy-efficient heating and air-conditioning equipment, insulation,
roofing, and water heaters. The maximum amount of credit you can receive
for buying these types of upgrades in 2009 and 2010 is $1,500. At the time
of this writing, the credit was due to expire on December 31, 2010, but
it is possible it will be continued for future tax years.
To get the credit, you'll need to complete IRS Form 5695 when filing your
taxes. Make sure you receive from the manufacturer or the installer a certification
form that proves the product is eligible for the credit. Since you can
only apply the credit toward the cost of the product and not installation
costs, also make sure you get an itemized invoice that separates the product
cost from the labor cost.
In addition to the federal tax credit, check to see whether there are rebates
or low-interest loans available from state- or local-government programs
or from your utility company for installing energy-efficient windows. We
unfortunately couldn't find any available incentive programs for area residents
for window replacements for existing homes at the time we went to press.
But incentives for installing energy-efficient windows are becoming increasingly
available in other areas, so it's worth checking for new programs. An excellent
resource for details on what incentives are currently available for all
types of energy-efficiency solutions is www.dsireusa.org, which maintains
an up-to-date database of what's available nationwide.
Whichever window company you deal with, you will want to have a tight contract.
Details on the Product and the Installation Procedure
What make and model of window will be used in each opening? Will there
be flashing installed? Will it be painted? Will it match the existing trim
or not? Will the windows meet Energy Star standards and qualify for the
federal tax credit? Will there be an Energy Star label? Exactly how large
will each opening be when prepared for the window and how large will each
window be—the glass and the opening? This last point is especially important
because vagueness here means you risk having the company supply windows
that are smaller than they should be—convenient for the company since the
windows can easily be fit in place, but undesirable for you since the result
might be packing out of the space before the new window is installed, and
less glass than expected and an unattractive result.
Contractors should carry two types: general liability and worker's compensation.
They should be able to show you a certificate that confirms the coverage.
The first type insures against damages when a contractor drops one of the
windows. The second covers injuries to the worker it fell on. Homeowner
policies may cover those incidents, too. But the contractor's insurance
should kick in first.
You should be able to pay all, or at least half, of the contract price
after the work is complete. The more you leave to the end, the more leverage
you'll have to make sure the work is done satisfactorily.
The starting date should be firm so you can prepare for the job. A completion
date is less important because most projects can be finished in a week
or less. But it's wise to add a phrase that the work will be continuous,
and a note about who will be onsite supervising the job.
To provide some recourse if the job proves to be obviously substandard,
contracts should contain a phrase to the effect that the contractor will
complete the project in a workmanlike and professional manner.
Window replacement projects generate a lot of construction debris and carting
it away (and paying disposal fees) should be part of the contract.
Below are the most common kinds of complaints we found in the reviews of
window installation firms when we surveyed CHECKBOOK subscribers.
- Poor customer service—Firm's office staff or workers were rude, disorganized,
or communication was poor. Mentioned in 37 percent of complaints.
- Subpar installation work—Work was not completed correctly on the first
attempt. Mentioned in 36 percent of complaints.
- Promptness—Firm missed appointments or took too long to complete work.
Mentioned in 28 percent of complaints.
- Incompetent advice from sales staff. Mentioned in 16 percent of complaints.
- Failure to complete contract—Firm did not completely fulfill contract,
failed to deliver on promises, did not promptly address problems raised
by customer, or did not honor a warranty or guarantee. Mentioned in 14
percent of complaints.
- High prices—Rater believed firm's prices were too expensive. Mentioned
in 10 percent of complaints.
- Poor product quality—Firm provided windows that were of inferior quality
or that failed prematurely. Mentioned in seven percent of complaints.
- Attempt to charge more than agreed. Mentioned in three percent of complaints.
- Workers damaged property while doing work. Mentioned in two percent of