From the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Acne is a disorder resulting from the action of hormones and other substances on the skin's oil glands (sebaceous glands) and hair follicles. These factors lead to plugged pores and outbreaks of lesions commonly called pimples or zits. See more from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
From the Mayo Clinic
Emerging acne treatments at MayoClinic.com
From the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Acne occurs when the pores of the skin become clogged, inflamed, and sometimes infected. These clogged pores can result in blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples. Acne tends to occur in teenagers, but can also occur in adults. More at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Acne: Essentials from Consumer Reports
What is it? What are the symptoms? How common is it? What will happen? Key points about treatments at Consumer Reports.
Take the acne quiz
Nearly 17 million Americans have acne, making it the most common skin disease in this country, according to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Test your knowledge of acne by taking this multiple-choice quiz at Healthline.com.
Acne Fact Sheet
Fact sheet on acne from the American College of Dermatology.
Podcast: Study Finds Diet Indeed Influences Acne
For decades, dermatologists have said there’s no connection between diet and acne. But many patients have insisted they do see a link. Slowly, information has been accumulating that shows the acne sufferers might be right. Listen to a podcast from Scientific American.
An overview of acne treatment guidelines.
Treatment guidelines for comedonic acne, common acne, and postular acne. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.
Guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management.
Clinicians may find it helpful to use a consistent classification/grading scale (encompassing the numbers and types of acne lesions as well as disease severity) to facilitate therapeutic decisions and assess response to treatment. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.
Abstract: Guidelines for the management of acne vulgaris in adolescents.
This article reviews the treatment of acne in adolescents. The choice of therapy should be principally based on the type of lesion and the severity of the acne, but psychosocial disability relating to the disease and the presence of scarring may also influence the approach to treatment. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Nicotinamide inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-induced IL-8 production in keratinocytes through the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris. It has been shown to activate interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by interacting with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) on the surface of keratinocytes. Nicotinamide has been shown to be an effective treatment for skin inflammation in various conditions, including acne vulgaris. See Abstract at PubMed.
Free Full-Text: Implications of a vaccination treatment for acne vulgaris.
Acne vulgaris afflicts more than fifty million people in the United State and the severity of this disorder is associated with the immune response to Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Get free full-text article at PubMed.
Abstract: Minocycline for acne vulgaris: efficacy and safety.
Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Although it is more convenient for patients to take than first-generation tetracyclines, as it only needs to be taken once or twice a day and can be taken with food, it is more expensive. See Abstract at PubMed.
Free Full-Text: Cost-effectiveness rationale for the selection of antimicrobial therapy in acne through a randomised study.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative efficacy and cost-effectiveness of five of the most commonly used antimicrobial preparations for treating mild to moderate facial acne in the community. Get free-full-text article at PubMed.
Abstract: Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel: a review of its use in the management of acne.
Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acne vulgaris through both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory means. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: A randomized, single-blind comparison of topical clindamycin + benzoyl peroxide and adapalene in the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris.
Antibiotics are often combined with other agents to provide topical acne treatments that are effective against both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: A randomized, single-blind comparison of topical clindamycin + benzoyl peroxide (Duac) and erythromycin + zinc acetate (Zineryt) in the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris.
Antibiotics are often combined with other agents to provide topical acne treatments that are effective against both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Hormonal therapy for acne.
Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Oral contraceptives as anti-androgenic treatment of acne.
Although acne is seldom associated with high serum levels of androgens, it has been shown that female acne patients have definite increases in ovarian and adrenal androgen levels when compared to appropriate controls. See Abstract at PubMed.
Free Full-Text: Treatment of acne with intermittent and conventional isotretinoin: a randomized, controlled multicenter study.
Oral isotretinoin is the most effective choice in the treatment of severe acne. Application of isotretionin to acne has been expanded to treat those patients with less severe but scarring acne who are responding unsatisfactorily to conventional therapies. Get free full-text article at PubMed.
Abstract: Isotretinoin and intestinal damage.
Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is marketed as an oral treatment for refractory severe acne. It is known to carry a risk of severe birth defects. The skin tends to become dry and fragile during isotretinoin treatment; (2) Some adverse effects of isotretinoin are caused by damage to the intestinal mucosae. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Management of post-acne scarring. What are the options for treatment?
Post-acne scarring is a very distressing and difficult problem for physician and patient alike. Recently, newer techniques and modifications to older ones may make this hitherto refractory problem more manageable. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Successful treatment of acneiform scarring with CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing.
Ablative CO(2) laser resurfacing, while effective, is associated with an undesirable side effects profile, lengthy recovery period, and risk of infection as well as potential pigmentary alterations. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Second-generation 1,550-nm fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of acne scars
Acne scars affect the entire population, causing significant distress and concern. Previous treatments for acne scars have yielded varying degrees of success and associated side effects. Fractional photothermolysis has been shown to improve scars, including surgical scars, hypopigmented scars, and atrophic acne scars. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Topical acne drugs: review of clinical properties, systemic exposure, and safety.
This review examines the commonly available topical acne agents and factors that determine their percutaneous absorption. Reported and theoretical adverse effects from systemic exposure are detailed. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Effective over-the-counter acne treatments.
Acne is the most common disease of the skin, yet only a fraction of acne sufferers are treated with prescription products by physicians. There is, however, a large and expanding market for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, many of which are not only effective but also well tolerated and cosmetically elegant. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Acne and its management beyond the age of 35 years.
Although acne is not usually considered to be a disorder that affects the elderly, the disorder occurs sufficiently often in mature individuals to be noteworthy. See Abstract at PubMed.
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