Information on Diabetes from the National Library of Medicine
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With Type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. Read more at the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
Information on Diabetes from the American Diabetes Association
Type 1, Type 2, Gestational, Prevention, Symptoms, Diabetes Statistics, Tips, Common Terms, Diabetes Myths and more at the American Diabetes Association.
Information on Diabetes at Johns Hopkins Medicine
What it is, symptoms, what causes it, prevention, diagnosis, treatments and more at Johns Hopkins Medicine.
The Diabetes Learning Center at the University of Michigan Health System
Learn about the type of diabetes you have, whether you just found out you have the disease or have been living with it for some time. Our topics will teach you about eating well and about controlling your blood sugar levels. You will learn how to manage diabetes and prevent further health problems. You will find helpful tips on how to take care of your feet, and you will learn how to manage other health problems related to diabetes. Read more at the University of Michigan Health System.
Information on Type 1 Diabetes at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Type 1 diabetes is when the body does not make enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body convert food into energy. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) from the food you eat cannot enter cells. So glucose builds up in the blood. Your body tissue becomes starved for energy. Read more from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Information on Type 2 Diabetes at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Glucose comes from the breakdown of food. It is the body's energy source. It can pass from the blood to cells with a hormone called insulin. Without insulin, glucose will build up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. At the same time, your body's cells are starved for glucose (energy). A lack of insulin or a resistance to insulin causes diabetes. In type 2 diabetes the body is resistant to high levels of insulin. There is plenty of insulin in the body but the cells are unable to use it. Read more from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Diabetes and the Flu
People with diabetes who come down with the flu could become very sick and are at risk for complications. Being sick by itself can raise your blood glucose. Moreover, illness can prevent you from eating properly, which further affects blood glucose. Everyone with diabetes should get a yearly seasonal flu shot. You should also get the H1N1 vaccine as soon as it is available where you live (see flu locator).
Take the Diabetes Risk Test
Determine your risk of prediabetes or diabetes.
Pamphlet - Keep Your Diabetes Under Control
A pamphlet from the National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases.
Podcast: Managing Diabetes
Listen to stories of real people who manage their diabetes everyday in this weekly podcast produced by the National Diabetes Education Program.
Standards of medical care in diabetes. I. Classification and diagnosis.
GUIDELINE OBJECTIVE(S): To provide information on the classification of diabetes and recommendations for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus; To provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.
Standards of medical care in diabetes. V. Diabetes care.
GUIDELINE OBJECTIVE(S): To provide evidence-based principles and recommendations for diabetes management; To provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.
Care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a statement of the American Diabetes Association.
GUIDELINE OBJECTIVE(S): To provide a single resource on current standards of care pertaining specifically to children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes and pregnancy.
GUIDELINE OBJECTIVE(S): To provide clinicians with clear and accessible guidelines to care for patients with diabetes mellitus.
Does long-term coffee intake reduce type 2 diabetes mellitus risk?
This review reports the evidence for a relation between long-term coffee intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated this association and, at this moment, at least fourteen out of eighteen cohort studies revealed a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus with frequent coffee intake. Moderate coffee intake (?4 cups of coffee/d of 150 mL or ?400 mg of caffeine/d) has generally been associated with a decrease in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Adult weight gain and diabetes among African American and White adults in southeastern US communities.
Objective: To examine associations between adult weight gain and diabetes among African Americans and whites. Method: Cross-sectional interview data from 19,589 African American men, 6,202 white men, 27,021 African American women, and 11,623 white women enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study in the southeastern USA from 2002-2009 were analyzed in multivariate logistic regression models to examine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between self-reported diabetes and weight change from age 21. See Abstract at PubMed.
Efficacy and safety of insulin analogues for the management of diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND: Although insulin analogues are commonly prescribed for the management of diabetes mellitus, there is uncertainty regarding their optimal use. We conducted meta-analyses to compare the outcomes of insulin analogues with conventional insulins in the treatment of type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: New drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus: what is their place in therapy?
Oral therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, when used appropriately, can safely assist patients to achieve glycaemic targets in the short to medium term. However, the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes usually requires a combination of two or more oral agents in the longer term, often as a prelude to insulin therapy. Issues of safety and tolerability, notably weight gain, often limit the optimal application of anti-diabetic drugs such as sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones. See Abstract at PubMed.
Incretin-Based Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are incretins secreted from enteroendocrine cells postprandially in part to regulate glucose homeostasis. Dysregulation of these hormones is evident in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two new drugs, exenatide (GLP-1 mimetic) and sitagliptin [dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitor], have been approved by regulatory agencies for treating T2DM. Liraglutide (GLP-1 mimetic) and vildagliptin (DPP 4 inhibitor) are expected to arrive on the market soon. Full text available free through PubMed.
Independent associations between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Emerging data suggest an association between diabetes mellitus and an increased risk of cancer,1 including breast cancer in women;2 colorectal,3 pancreatic4,5 and liver6 cancer in both men and women; and prostate cancer in men.7 Several prospective analyses, including the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,8 have demonstrated an inverse relation between serum total cholesterol and cancer incidence and mortality in the general population, although few studies have investigated this relation among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Stem cells to pancreatic beta-cells: new sources for diabetes cell therapy.
The number of patients worldwide suffering from the chronic disease diabetes mellitus is growing at an alarming rate. Insulin-secreting beta-cells in the islet of Langerhans are damaged to different extents in diabetic patients, either through an autoimmune reaction present in type 1 diabetic patients or through inherent changes within beta-cells that affect their function in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Cell replacement strategies via islet transplantation offer potential therapeutic options for diabetic patients. See Abstract at PubMed.
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Source: National Diabetes Education Program
Patient-centered principles of diabetes care (click to view brochure)
Source: National Diabetes Education Program
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Real people with diabetes - their stories.
Source: Cochrane Collaboration
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