Gallstones — Overview, Symptoms, Treatments, and Other Resources.
Information on Gallstones from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Gallstones are small, pebble-like substances that develop in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped sac located below your liver in the right upper abdomen. Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens into pieces of stone-like material. See more from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Information on Gallstones and Gallbladder Disease at the University of Maryland Medical Center
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gallstones at the University of Maryland Medical Center.
Information on Gallstones at Cedars-Sinai
The gallbladder, a small, pear-shaped organ under the liver, collects and stores bile. Bile is a thick, greenish-yellow, bitter fluid made by the liver. Bile is made up of bile salts, electrolytes, bilirubin, cholesterol and other fats. The salts help stimulate the large intestine to secrete water and other slats, which helps move the contents of the digestive tract out of the body. Bilirubin is a waste product consisting of the remains of worn-out red blood cells. The breakdown products of drugs and wastes processed by the liver are also released in bile. ..Read more at Cedars-Sinai.
Gallstones: Essentials at Consumer reports
What is it? What are the symptoms? How is it diagnosed? How common is it? What will happen? Questions to ask.
Key points about treatments at Consumer Reports.
Statins and Gallstones - Will Statins Soon be Added to Municipal Water Supplies?
At the Johns Hopkins PodBlog.
Abstract: Various techniques for the surgical treatment of common bile duct stones: a meta review.
Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) may occur in up to 3%-14.7% of all patients for whom cholecystectomy is preformed. Patients presenting with CBDS have symptoms including: biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis or may be asymptomatic. It is important to distinguish between primary and secondary stones, because the treatment approach varies. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Gallbladder function and dynamics of bile flow in asymptomatic gallstone disease.
AIM: To investigate the effects of gallbladder stones on motor functions of the gallbladder and the dynamics of bile flow in asymptomatic gallstone disease. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Effect of ezetimibe on the prevention and dissolution of cholesterol gallstones.
Cholesterol cholelithiasis is one of the most prevalent and most costly digestive diseases in developed countries and its incidence has increased markedly in Asian countries owing to the adoption of Western-type dietary habits. Because animal experiments showed that high efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption contributes to gallstone formation, we explored whether the potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe could prevent gallstones and promote gallstone dissolution in mice and reduce biliary cholesterol content in human beings. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Review: pathogenesis of gallstones.
The aim of this article is to review selected aspects of the pathogenesis of cholesterol-rich, gall-bladder stones (GBS)--with emphasis on recent developments in biliary cholesterol saturation, cholesterol microcrystal nucleation, statis within the gall-bladder and, particularly, on the roles of intestinal transit and altered deoxycholic acid (DCA) metabolism, in GBS development. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Innovations in the medical treatment of gallstones and fatty liver: FABACs (Fatty Acid Bile Acid Conjugates)
Gallstones and fatty liver are common disorders in the Western world, largely due to dietary and life style factors. Currently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main treatment option for gallbladder stones. Surgery is, however, expensive and may cause morbidity and even mortality. An effective medical treatment would be desirable, especially in patients with mild to moderate symptoms or high surgical risk. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not influenced by chronological age in the elderly.
AIM: To evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients aged 80 years and older. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Removing symptomatic gallstones at their first emergency presentation.
Early operations for symptomatic gallstones are gaining favour as the complication rate is thought to be lower and it reduces the overall morbidity. This study was performed to clarify how frequently early operations were being performed and what benefits resulted. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Health-related quality of life and appropriateness of cholecystectomy.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Silent gallstones: a therapeutic dilemma.
Asymptomatic gall stones are defined as stones that have not caused biliary colic or other biliary symptoms. Nearly two-third of patients with gall stones are asymptomatic. Studies of the natural history of asymptomatic gall stones suggest that the cumulative probability of developing biliary colic after 10 years ranges from 15% to 25%. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men.
Diets with a high glycaemic response exacerbate the metabolic consequences of the insulin resistance syndrome. Their effects on the incidence of gall stone disease are not clear, particularly in men. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Diet as a risk factor for cholesterol gallstone disease.
Cholesterol gallstone disease is a common condition in western populations. The etiology is multifactorial with interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity, aging, estrogen treatment, pregnancy and diabetes are consistently associated to a higher risk. A number of dietary factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Gallstones: genetics versus environment.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if a significant genetic component contributes to the pathogenesis of symptomatic gallstones. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Gender and gallstone disease.
Gallstone disease is a common disorder all over the world. In the Western societies about 80 % of the gallstones are composed primarily of cholesterol. Several risk factors for gallstone formation have been identified. One of the most important risk factors is female gender. See Abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Gallstone formation prophylaxis after gastric restrictive procedures for weight loss: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
OBJECT: To determine if a 6-month regimen of prophylactic ursodeoxycholic acid is effective in the prevention of gallstones. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Rapid weight loss after surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity is associated with a high incidence of gallstone formation. Full text available free through PubMed.
Abstract: Oral contraceptives in gall stone diseases.
A cross sectional study was under taken to evaluate the prevalence of gallstone in fertile women who are taking oral contraceptives. The aim of study was to determine any significant association between oral contractive use and Cholelithiasis. See Abstract at PubMed.
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