Information on Meningitis and Encephalitis from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Meningitis and encephalitis are inflammatory diseases of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord and are caused by bacterial or viral infections. Viral meningitis is sometimes called aseptic meningitis to indicate it is not the result of bacterial infection and cannot be treated with antibiotics. Symptoms of encephalitis include sudden fever, headache, vomiting, heightened sensitivity to light, stiff neck and back, confusion and impaired judgment, drowsiness, weak muscles, a clumsy and unsteady gait, and irritability. More from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health.
Meningitis - a Comprehensive Description from the National Library of Medicine
Meningitis is inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges. There are several types of meningitis. The most common is viral meningitis, which you get when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels to the brain. Bacterial meningitis is rare, but can be deadly. It usually starts with bacteria that cause a cold-like infection. It can block blood vessels in the brain and lead to stroke and brain damage. It can also harm other organs. More information, including details about diagnosis and treatment, is provided by the U.S. National Library of Medicine/National Instititutes of Health.
Meningitis - Mayo Clinic
Information on meningitis from MayoClinic.com.
Meningococcal disease: Essentials from Consumer Reports
What is it? What are the symptoms? How common is it? What will happen? Key points about treatments from Consumer Reports.
The brain and spinal cord are encased by layers of tissue. These layers are called the meninges. Certain bacteria can cause an infection in these layers. This is called bacterial meningitis. It is a serious infection that can cause death within hours. A quick diagnosis and treatment is vital. Read more at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
The brain and spinal cord are encased by layers of tissue. These layers are called the meninges. Certain viruses can cause an infection in these layers. This is called viral meningitis. Read more at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Pediatric Vaccine Prevents Pneumococcal Meningitis in Both Adults and Children
A standard pediatric vaccine used to prevent several common types of life-threatening infections also effectively reduced the rates of another disease, pneumococcal meningitis, in children and adults, according to a multi-center study led by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The study, published in the Jan. 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and based on a detailed review of pneumococcal meningitis cases, also noted an increase in strains of pneumococcal meningitis not covered by the vaccine and those resistant to antibiotics. See the UPMC press release.
Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk for Deadly Meningitis, Says University of Pittsburgh-Led Study
Adolescents and young adults have an unusually high risk of severe and sometimes fatal bacterial meningitis, according to a study led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and published in the Aug. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. In an effort to characterize, for the first time, the features of meningococcal infection in 15-to 24-year-olds during the 1990s, researchers conducted laboratory-based surveillance and reviewed 1990-1999 health department and medical records from the state of Maryland. See the UPMC press release.
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
Haemophilus influenzae type B, or Hib, disease is caused by a bacterial infection. It usually strikes children under five years old. Hib disease can lead to serious conditions, including meningitis. More information from UPMC.
Video: Kill or Cure? Meningitis
In March 2007, as an epidemic was raging in Burkina Faso, MVP partnered with United Kingdom film production company Rockhopper TV to create a documentary on meningococcal meningitis for BBC's Kill or Cure series. The 22-minute film offers a poignant and revealing account of the devastating impact meningitis epidemics have on individuals, families, and communities. The film also takes viewers to Mali where MVP's new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is being tested...View the video at the Meningitis Vaccine Project.
Video: Meningitis Symptoms
Meningitis Research Foundation patron Dr Hilary Jones explains about meningitis and septicaemia.
Video: Have You Heard?
Meningococcal disease is a serious, potentially fatal illness. There are approximately 1,000-2,000 cases of meningococcal disease in the United States each year. Pre-teens, adolescents, and college freshmen who live in dorms are at an increased risk for meningococcal disease. Regular check-ups during the pre-teen and adolescent years are great opportunities for your child to receive the meningococcal and other recommended vaccines. View the video from the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at cdc.gov.
Podcast: Have You Heard?
Pre-teens, adolescents, and college freshmen who live in dorms are at an increased risk for meningococcal disease. This podcast discusses routine vaccination recommendations for 11-18 year olds. Listen at cdc.gov.
Management of invasive meningococcal disease in children and young people. A national clinical guideline.
Management of invasive meningococcal disease in children and young people. A national clinical guideline from Edinburgh (Scotland). More from the National Guideline Clearinghouse.
Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
In 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine for use in children aged 2 to 10 years, in addition to its prior approval for use in persons aged 11 to 55 years. See immunization recommendations from the National Guideline Clearninghouse.
Guideline on the management of community-acquired bacterial meningitis
The European Federation of Neurological Societies Task Force provides research and recommendations about managing Acute Bacterial Meningitis in older children and adults. More from the National Guideline Clearinghouse.
Abstract: Meningococcal meningitis prevention programs for college students: a review of the literature.
The incidence of meningococcal meningitis in college students is higher than in other populations. College students, especially 1st-year students living in dormitories or residence halls, are among those at highest risk of developing the disease. It is estimated that immunization can prevent up to 83% of cases among adolescents and college students. A review of the literature was undertaken to identify and critique the research-based prevention programs that are focused on college students. See abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Preventive effect of meningococcal vaccination in Israeli military recruits.
Meningococcal disease remains a major concern in populations living under crowded conditions. Following the 1995 report of several cases of meningococcal disease in Israeli soldiers, the Department of Epidemiology of the Army Health Branch, Israel Defense Forces (IDF) adopted an immunization policy for all recruits. The aim of the study was to summarize the IDF experience to date. See the abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Herpes simplex type-2 meningitis: presentation and lack of standardized therapy.
Herpes simplex type-2 causes both primary and recurrent lymphocytic meningitis, but optimal patient management is not well defined. In a study, researchers reviewed the medical records of patients with HSV-2-positive cerebrospinal fluid samples. See abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Treatment of acute cryptococcal meningitis in HIV infected adults, with an emphasis on resource-limited settings.
Despite the advent and increasingly wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity amongst individuals with HIV infection in resource-limited settings. The ideal management of CM remains unclear. See abstract at PubMed.
Abstract: Etiologies of bacterial meningitis in Bangladesh: results from a hospital-based study.
The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research conducted a study at four hospitals from June 2003 to July 2005 to investigate the etiologies of bacterial meningitis in Bangladesh. See abstract at PubMed.
Looking for a Top-Rated
Neurologist, Adult Primary Care Physician, or Pediatrician?
Consumers' Guide to Top Doctors finds the Doctors Rated Best by other Doctors
To find out who the top doctors are around the country, nonprofit Consumers' CHECKBOOK surveyed roughly 340,000 physicians to tell us which specialists they would want to care for a loved one. The Top Doctors database contains the names of over 23,000 doctors who were mentioned most often. Find top-rated doctors in the fifty largest metropolitan areas, in over thirty-five specialties, and more.
Source: Wikimedia -Mikael Häggström
Symptoms of Meningitis
Meningitis in Babies
Consumers' Guide to Top Doctors finds the Doctors Rated Best by other Doctors in over 30 specialties.
database of 23,000 top-rated physicians by
Doctors database of 23,000 top-rated
(over 35 different fields included) Specialty
Source: The Meningitis Trust
Don't Ignore the Signs
Consumers' Guide to Hospitals
Which Hospital Should You Choose (or Avoid)?
What makes the Consumers' Guide to Hospitals so special?
We've got 30 million answers to that question. That's how many hospital records Consumers' CHECKBOOK sifted through to calculate risk-adjusted death rates and adverse-outcome rates, and that's just part of the data used to rate the hospitals. The organization also sent out more than 280,000 questionnaires to physicians in 53 major metropolitan areas in the United States, asking them to rate their local hospitals; checked ratings of the hospitals by surveyed consumers; checked which hospitals were providing recommended tests and procedures for patients with specified medical problems; and more."
AARP The Magazine