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Myocardial Infarction — Overview, Symptoms, Treatments, and Other Resources.
Myocardial Infarction (also known as Heart Attack)
Comprehensive Guides
What is a Heart Attack from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a section of heart muscle becomes blocked. If the flow of blood isn’t restored quickly, the section of heart muscle becomes damaged from lack of oxygen and begins to die. Heart attack is a leading killer of both men and women in the United States. But fortunately...More at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

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Myocardial Ischemia, Injury and Infarction from the American Heart Association
Insufficient blood supply to the myocardium can result in myocardial ischemia, injury or infarction, or all three. Read more at the American Heart Association.

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Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) from Cedars-Sinai
Find extensive information and other resources on myocardial infarction at Cedars-Sinai.

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Heart attack: Essentials from Consumer Reports
What is it? What are the symptoms? How common is it? What will happen? Questions to ask. Key points about treatments. More at Consumer Reports.org.

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Fact Sheets, Tutorials, Interactive Tools, and other Interesting Information
A Comparison of Bare-Metal Stents and Drug-Eluting Stents for Off-Label Indications
The study showed that when stents are used in off-label fashion, DES are more efficacious in reducing the need for repeat revascularization than BMS, without an increase in the hazard of myocardial infarction or death at one year. See the UPMC press release.

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"Act In Time To Heart Attack Signs" Quiz
See if you know what to do if a heart attack happens. Take this True/False quiz at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

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Videos and Podcasts
Podcast Podcast: Heart attack symptoms in women — Are they different?
Listen to the interview with Sharonne Hayes, M.D., presented by the Mayo Clinic.

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Podcast Podcast: Omega-3 fatty acids — Get the heart-health benefits
Listen to the interview with Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D., presented by the Mayo Clinic.

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Video Video: Heart and circulatory system — How they work
View the video presented by the Mayo Clinic.

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Forums & Support Communities


Clinical Practice Guidelines
Myocardial infarction.
If a person at risk of a myocardial infarction (MI) has an acute coronary syndrome lasting over 20 minutes, imminent MI must be suspected. Instead of chest pain, acute dyspnoea may be the primary symptom. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.
The net benefit of aspirin depends on the initial risk for coronary heart disease events and gastrointestinal bleeding. Thus, decisions about aspirin therapy should consider the overall risks for coronary heart disease and gastrointestinal bleeding. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Guidelines for percutaneous coronary interventions.
PCI can be considered a valuable initial mode of revascularization in all patients with stable CAD and objective large ischaemia in the presence of almost every lesion subset, with only one exception: CTO that cannot be crossed. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non ST-Elevation myocardial infarction.
Primary care providers should evaluate the presence and status of control of major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) for all patients at regular intervals (approximately every 3 to 5 years). See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Thrombolytic therapy and balloon angioplasty in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Primary balloon angioplasty (primary cutaneous coronary intervention [PPCI]) provides superior results compared to thrombolytic therapy and should therefore always be prioritized. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Prevention of premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery stents.
Thienopyridine therapy in combination with aspirin has become the mainstay antiplatelet treatment strategy for the prevention of stent thrombosis. Premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy markedly increases the risk of stent thrombosis, a catastrophic event that frequently leads to myocardial infarction (MI) and/or death. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Expert consensus document on beta-adrenergic receptor blockers.
The benefit and clinical indications of beta-blockers have been clearly defined in many cardiovascular conditions, and agreement about their potential usefulness has been clearly established in many clinical settings. Beta-blockers are safe to use when contraindications have been excluded and the appropriate dosage regimen is used. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Expert consensus document on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in cardiovascular disease.
The benefits of and clinical indications to the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) have been clearly defined in many cardiovascular conditions, and agreement as to their potential usefulness has been established in chronic heart failure, asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction and hypertension and in patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. See National Guideline Clearinghouse major recommendations.

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Important Articles from Medical Journals
Abstract: Balancing benefit against risk in the choice of therapy for coronary artery disease. Lesson from prospective, randomized, clinical trials of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
The ageing world population faces a coming pandemic of high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with CAD have 3 therapeutic options, which are based on objective clinical outcome: medical therapy and risk factor modification (Medicine), and 2 forms of revascularization, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). See Abstract at PubMed.

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Abstract: PCI versus CABG versus medical therapy in 2006.
The decision to offer patients with myocardial ischemia a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has been largely determined by extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular function, since the early 1970's. See Abstract at pub med.

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Abstract: Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
There is general consensus that emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), so long as it can be delivered in a timely fashion, by an experienced' operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) team. See Abstract at PubMed.

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Abstract: Optimal platelet inhibition after coronary stent implantation. Current status.
Today, stents are implanted in over 80% of PCIs to improve the acute and long-term results. The most feared complication after stent implantation is the acutely occurring stent thrombosis, which usually leads to a myocardial infarction with its relatively high mortality. See Abstract at PubMed.

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Abstract: Embryonic stem cell transplantation: promise and progress in the treatment of heart disease.
While heart transplantation is a viable option, this life-saving intervention suffers from an acute shortage of cardiac organ donors. In view of these existing issues, donor cell transplantation is emerging as a promising strategy to regenerate diseased myocardium. See Abstract at PubMed.

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Abstract: Roles of nuclear cardiology, cardiac computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance: assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Noninvasive cardiac imaging is now central to the diagnosis and management of patients with known or suspected chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). See Abstract at pub med.

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Abstract: The Mediterranean diet revisited: evidence of its effectiveness grows.
The optimal dietary strategy for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases remains a challenging and a highly relevant preventive health issue. In recent years, there have been ongoing investigations of the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in preventing the development of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. See Abstract at PubMed.

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Abstract: Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review.
Epidemiologic data suggest that omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce cardiovascular disease. The clinical benefit of dietary fish oil supplementation in preventing cardiovascular events in both high and low risk patients is unclear. See Abstract at PubMed.

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Abstract: A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease.
Although a wealth of literature links dietary factors and coronary heart disease (CHD), the strength of the evidence supporting valid associations has not been evaluated systematically in a single investigation. See Abstract at PubMed.

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Looking for a Top-Rated Cardiologist or Cardiac Surgeon?
Consumers' Guide to Top Doctors finds the Doctors Rated Best by other Doctors
To find out who the top doctors are around the country, nonprofit Consumers' CHECKBOOK surveyed roughly 340,000 physicians to tell us which specialists they would want to care for a loved one. The Top Doctors database contains the names of over 23,000 doctors who were mentioned most often. Find top-rated doctors in the fifty largest metropolitan areas, in over thirty-five specialties, and more.
The Human Heart

Heart Attack Diagram.

Consumers' Guide to Top Doctors finds the Doctors Rated Best by other Doctors in over 30 specialties.

Search Top Doctors database of 23,000 top-rated physicians by Doctor's Name

Search Top Doctors database of 23,000 top-rated physicians by Specialty (over 35 different fields included)

Heart Coronary Artery Lesion

Consumers' Guide to Hospitals
Which Hospital Should You Choose
(or Avoid)?
"What makes the Consumers' Guide to Hospitals so special? We've got 30 million answers to that question. That's how many hospital records Consumers' CHECKBOOK sifted through to calculate risk-adjusted death rates and adverse-outcome rates, and that's just part of the data used to rate the hospitals. The organization also sent out more than 280,000 questionnaires to physicians in 53 major metropolitan areas in the United States, asking them to rate their local hospitals; checked ratings of the hospitals by surveyed consumers; checked which hospitals were providing recommended tests and procedures for patients with specified medical problems; and more."
AARP The Magazine
Source: Cochrane Collaboration

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