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West Nile Virus — Overview, Symptoms, Treatments, and Other Resources.
West Nile Virus (also known as WNV)
Comprehensive Guides
Information on West Nile Virus from MayoClinic.com
Read information on the West Nile Virus at mayoclinic.com.

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Information on the West Nile Virus from the Food & Drug Administration
West Nile Virus is an illness spread by mosquitoes. Sometimes, it can cause serious infections of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. This is rare. Most people who get West Nile Virus do not get sick. Others may have mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and feeling tired. People are most likely to get West Nile Virus in the late summer and early fall. Most people do not notice any symptoms after getting West Nile Virus. About 1 in 150 people who get West Nile Virus can have serious problems with their brain, spinal cord and nerves (nervous system). Read more from the FDA.

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Information on the West Nile Virus from the American Academy of Family Physicians
West Nile virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is most commonly found in Africa, West Asia and the Middle East. The virus has spread to the United States, where it has been reported in 48 states. West Nile virus is most often spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West Nile virus when an infected mosquito bites them. This happens most often in the warm-weather months of spring, summer and early fall. You cannot get West Nile virus from another person or from your pet. Read more at Familydoctor.org.

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Fact Sheets, Tutorials, Interactive Tools, and other Interesting Information
West Nile Virus: What You Need To Know
West Nile virus (WNV) is a potentially serious illness. Experts believe WNV is established as a seasonal epidemic in North America that flares up in the summer and continues into the fall. This fact sheet contains important information that can help you recognize and prevent West Nile virus. Read the fact sheet from the Centers for Disease Control.

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Insect Repellents: Use and Effectiveness
Read about choosing an Insect Repellent at the Environmental Protection Agency.

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Videos and Podcasts
Video Video: Protecting Yourself and Your Community from West Nile Virus
An educational video about West Nile virus and how individuals and communities can take action to prevent infection. View the video at the Centers for Disease Control.

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Video Video: Tell Mosquitoes to Buzz Off
33 sec public service announcement (PSA) that shows people how to prevent West Nile virus and explains what the risk of the disease is. View the PSA at the Centers for Disease Control.

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Video Video: Update on West Nile Virus For Clinicians and Laboratorians
This program, targeted to clinicians, laboratorians, and public health officials, will present current information on clinical and laboratory diagnosis of West Nile virus. Watch the video at the Centers for Disease Control.

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Clinical Practice Guidelines
Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States
Guidelines for the surveillance, prevention, and control of West Nile Virus from the Centers for Disease Control.

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Treating and Diagnosing West Nile Virus
Guidance for Clinician from the Centers for Disease Control.

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Important Articles from Medical Journals
Full Text: Infectious disease in a warming world: how weather influenced West Nile virus in the United States (2001-2005).
Warmer temperatures, elevated humidity, and heavy precipitation increased the rate of human WNV infection in the United States independent of season and each others’ effects. Full text available at Pubmed.

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Full Text: West Nile virus–induced acute flaccid paralysis is prevented by monoclonal antibody treatment when administered after infection of spinal cord neurons
Acute flaccid polio-like paralysis occurs during natural West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a subset of cases in animals and humans. To evaluate the pathology and the possibility for therapeutic intervention, the authors developed a model of acute flaccid paralysis by injecting WNV directly into the sciatic nerve or spinal cord of hamsters. Overall, these experiments establish that WNV-induced acute flaccid paralysis in hamsters is due to neuronal infection and injury in the lumbar spinal cord and that treatment with a therapeutic antibody prevents paralysis when administered after WNV infection of spinal cord neurons. Full text available at Pubmed.

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Full Text: Changing patterns of West Nile virus transmission: altered vector competence and host susceptibility
Although stable in its evolutionary structure, WNV has demonstrated the capacity for rapidly adapting to both vertebrate hosts and invertebrate vectors and will likely continue to exploit novel ecological niches as it adapts to novel transmission foci. Full text available at Pubmed.

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Full text: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes for 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and RNase L inpatients hospitalized with West Nile virus infection.
Infection with the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing problem across the United States, where there is a case?fatality rate of 15%–29% in individuals >70 years old and no consistently effective treatment. Susceptibility to WNV disease in inbred strains of mice was mapped to a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the 1b isoform of 2??5??oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), a member of the OAS/RNase L system of innate viral resistance. Genetic susceptibility to severe WNV disease in humans has not been determined. Full text available at Pubmed.

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Abstract: Neurocognitive and functional outcomes in persons recovering from West Nile virus illness.
Long-term neurocognitive and functional impairments following West Nile virus (WNV) disease are poorly understood. We assessed quality-of-life indices and neurocognitive performance in a cohort of 54 persons recovering from one of three WNV disease syndromes (fever [WNF], meningitis [WNM], or encephalitis [WNE]) approximately 1.5 years following acute illness. Most persons who returned to independent living following hospitalization for WNV illness had persistent subjective complaints, but had normal cognitive function. However, a minority displayed subtle neurocognitive deficits more than 18 months following acute disease. Abstract available at Pubmed.

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Geographic Distribution of West Nile Virus in the USA
Source: CDC

The mosquito that transmits West Nile Virus

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Transmission and life cycle of West Nile Virus
Source: LA County Public Health

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