Our discussion on how to save energy at home briefly hits on more than 30 changes you can can make in and around your home, from cheap-yet-effective steps to upgrades that require upfront spending, but quickly pay for themselves from lower utility bills to systems and renovations that minimize what you pull off the grid, but come at steep prices.

Much of this info draws on content from other sections of our website—ratings and advice for hiring heating and air-conditioning contractors, window suppliers, insulation installers, energy auditors, appliance stores, and more.

Below are links to additional resources for further info on going green.

Often, the extra costs of energy-saving improvements can be reduced by tax credits and utility company rebates. We also list below the incentives we could identify as available in the Washington area in November 2020.
 

Resources

Home Energy Saver pro
Tool from the U.S. Department of Energy that estimates cost vs. benefit of making various energy-saving improvements; we found using the “Detailed input” option helped generate the most accurate assessments

Energy Star
Certifies energy-efficient appliances and HVAC equipment

Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency
Rebates and tax incentives available from utilities and governments

Efficient Windows Collaborative
Help with window selection and estimating cost savings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Research and publications on renewables; offers a calculator that estimates energy production and cost of solar installations

Consumer Reports
Ratings of appliances, lightbulbs, window A/C units, etc.

Residential Energy Services Network
Certification for energy auditors

Passive House Institute U.S.
Certification and training for net-zero energy-use builders, contractors, and manufacturers

Zero Energy Project
Advice and lists of products and suppliers for home buyers, builders, and designers interested in net-zero energy-use homes

EPA WaterSense Rebate Finder
Database of available rebates for installing water-saving devices

Earth911.com
Tons of practical green tips, plus database on recycling centers and where to dispose of hazardous household waste

LocalHarvest
Fantastic for finding nearby farmers markets, CSAs, and other sources of locally grown food

National Resources Defense Council
Environmental research and watchdog group

YouTube
Thousands of DIY videos from experts (but also definitely-not-experts)
 

Rebates and Tax Incentives to Help Pay for Green Improvements

Below are the incentives we could identify as available in the Washington area in November 2020. Because programs come and go, check with Energy Star, your utility company, and the Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE) for up-to-date information.

Before starting a project, also confirm you qualify. Some programs require homeowners to work with utilities’ “approved” contractors or to file paperwork before installations occur to get rebates.

We didn’t include low-interest loan programs, which are most often available for new home construction. We also didn’t look for community grants for multi-home projects or incentives for commercial buildings. And we list only programs available to all; some other incentives have income or age requirements or apply to work done by landlords of apartment buildings.

Federal Income Tax Credits

Below, we list federal tax credits available for 2021 (homeowners can claim these credits when they file their federal tax returns).

  • Insulation and air leakage improvements—10 percent of project costs, not including installation/labor, up to $500
  • Windows, doors, skylights—10 percent of project costs, not including installation/labor, up to $200, for Energy Star-certified models
  • Furnaces—$150 for units with 95+ AFUE
  • Furnace blower motors—$50 for models that consume less than two percent of the furnace’s total energy
  • Wood or wood pellet stoves or biomass heating systems—26 percent of project costs for units with Thermal Efficiency Ratings of 75+
  • Water heaters—$300 for Energy Star-certified models
  • Central A/Cs—$300 for most systems
  • Air-source heat pumps—$300 for most new systems
  • Ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps—26 percent of project costs
  • Solar panels and fuel cells—26 percent of project costs
  • Wind energy—26 percent of project costs

D.C. Sustainable Energy Utility

  • Air-source heat pumps—$375 rebate for units with SEER 16.0 to 17.9; $575 rebate for units with SEER 18+
  • Central air conditioning—$250 rebate for units with SEER 16.0-17.9; $375 rebate for units with SEER 18+
  • Clothes dryers—$75-$200 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Clothes washers—$75-$100 for efficient models
  • Dehumidifiers—$35 rebate for approved models
  • Ductless mini-split heat pumps—$375 rebate for units with SEER 18.0 to 19.9; $575 rebate for units with SEER 20+
  • Gas boiler furnaces—$575 rebate for units with 90.0 to 94.9 AFUE; $825 rebate for units with 95+ AFUE
  • Gas furnaces—$575 rebate for Energy Star-certified units with 94 AFUE or better
  • Mini-split variable-speed A/Cs—$125 rebate per unit with SEER 18.0+
  • Programmable thermostats—$25-$50 rebate for approved models
  • Refrigerators—$75-$100 for efficient models
  • Water heaters—$125-$625 rebate for approved systems

Maryland

  • Solar projects—Sales tax exemption for eligible projects; also up to $3,000 tax credit for eligible projects
  • Wind energy—Sales tax exemption for eligible projects
  • Ground-source heat pumps—Up to $1,000 tax credit for eligible projects
  • Clean-burning wood pellet stoves—$700 rebate for eligible projects
  • Clean-burning wood stoves—$500 rebate for eligible projects

Maryland PEPCO Customers

  • Dehumidifiers—$30 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Energy audits—Free or discounted to $100 fee when ordered through utility
  • Heat pump water heaters—$500 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Lighting—Discounts (typically $3-$8 per approved bulb or fixture) when buying from participating retailers
  • Programmable thermostats—$100 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Refrigerators and freezers—$50 rebate if you recycle an old model

Maryland Washington Gas Customers

  • Gas furnaces—$345 rebate for Energy Star-certified units with 92 to 95 AFUE; $460 for units with 95.1+ AFUE
  • Boiler furnaces—$460 rebate for Energy Star-certified units; $805 for 95+ AFUE models
  • Gas clothes dryers—$60 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Water heaters—$115-$460 for Energy Star-certified models

Prince George’s County

  • Solar projects—Property tax credit equal to 50 percent of cost of system, up to $5,000

Virginia

  • Appliances and HVAC equipment—Income tax deduction equal to 20 percent of the sales tax paid for eligible models, up to $500 per year

Virginia Dominion Energy Customers

  • Refrigerators—$50 rebate for Energy Star-certified models; $20 rebate if you recycle an old model
  • Freezers—$50 rebate for Energy Star-certified models; $20 rebate if you recycle an old model
  • Dishwashers—$50 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Clothes washers—$50 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Electric clothes dryers—$100 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Dehumidifiers—$25 rebate for Energy Star-certified models
  • Energy audits—Free assessments when ordered through utility
  • Lighting—Discounts (typically $1-$8 per approved bulb or fixture) when buying from participating retailers